What is Philosophy? As you already know, the word means “love of wisdom” and refers to the study of the principles underlying conduct, thought, knowledge, and the nature of the universe.

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Movements and Trends in Western Thought: Part 1
Donald E. Stelting, Ph.D. and Janice L. Duce, M.Div.
This week we will place the study of Philosophy into a historical framework. What is Philosophy? As you already know, the word means “love of wisdom” and refers to the study of the principles underlying conduct, thought, knowledge, and the nature of the universe. For the philosophers and schools of philosophy we will be discussing here, each has tried to give attention to the “large questions” of philosophy, organized around three primary concepts or considerations. These are:
• Metaphysics: What is real?
• Epistemology: How do we know? Or: How can we know? Or: What is true?
• Axiology: What is good, valuable, or beautiful?
Also, an abiding question with philosophers concerns human nature. Are persons naturally good (or innocent) or evil (bad)? The way each would answer that question becomes an assumption that flavors all their subsequent thought. A related question has to do with the source of evil, or the nature of evil. (Stelting, screen 1 )
An outline of the historical context for western philosophy:
1. Classical Greek Philosophy @400 B.C. until @100 A.D. Socrates, Plato, Aristotle
2. Synthetic Christian Philosophy @100 until @ 1650
1. The Platonic and Neo Platonic period @100 until @1250
2. The Thomastic period @1250 until @1650 (perhaps the present for some)
3. The Enlightenment @1650 until 1850
4. Modern to Postmodern @1850 to present
This Lecture will focus on Classical Greek Philosophy, Synthetic Christian Philosophy and The Enlightenment. The Modern to Postmodern will be in Part II, the next lecture.
1. Classical Greek Philosophy (This section only, is taken from the Stelting lecture, “The Language and History of Philosophy”)
Most scholars consider three persons to have been the fathers of philosophy. In an overarching sense, these three men, Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle, introduced the primary features for philosophy. Greek philosophy is usually considered to be divided in time by the life of Socrates (469-399 BC). Before Socrates, Greek philosophy was largely preoccupied by the questions of the nature (the basic character) of the physical world. This part of philosophy is today the study of the physical sciences. With Socrates, in the writings of Plato, philosophy became interested in the nature of reality and of the nature of humankind. Hence the use of the term “metaphysics” or the study of what is beyond (after) or what underlies the physical world. We have no record of anything written by Socrates, but we do have the writings of Plato (428-348 B.C.), the student of Socrates. In fact, Socrates was the primary character in the writings of Plato.
Plato and (by extension) Socrates held that the idea, or forms are more real than the material thing corresponding to the idea. For example, before the “material” tree is the “idea” of the tree. While the material tree is temporal, imperfect, and limited, the “ideal” tree is eternal, perfect, and unlimited. Therefore, the idea is superior – that is, “prior” – to the material/physical manifestation of the idea.
Where do ideas come from? Plato would say that they have always existed – they are eternal (including pre-existence). In fact, we are born with these ideas in our minds. Education is the process by which we connect our direct consciousness with the memory of ideas that are in the mind from birth.
What about human nature? Plato, speaking for Socrates, would say that man is basically good or innocent; that evil is nothing but ignorance. “No one would knowingly do evil.” As we connect with ideas of proper conduct, we will see the wisdom and profit of doing what is right. Right conduct is in line with the very ideal nature of reality and is very practical. However, right conduct does not flow from the nature of god or the gods, it is rather within the fabric of the universe. Good is not necessarily safe, however. Ignorant men can do evil to good people because they are threatened by the critique of their actions.
The perfect society, Plato would say, could exist only if people accept their own roles in life, contributing to the health of the community. Different people have different roles based on their personal nature. Philosophers are the best rulers because, while they are the wisest of all, they do not want to rule, but are willing to accept that task out of obligation to the truth. Education is, ultimately, the most important tool toward the perfect society. Plato started what is considered by many to be the first “university” in western culture.
Aristotle (384-322 B.C.) was Plato’s student but differed from him in many ways. Aristotle emphasized that physical things were the most real, and that ideas were just categories by which we group things. For example, we got the idea of “tree” because we experienced a physical tree – in fact, because we saw enough trees we came to understand that there exists a category called “tree” or tree-ness. Henceforth we are able to recognize a new tree because it conforms to the category or idea we have come to know as “tree.”
Where do ideas come from then? Aristotle would say ideas come from direct experience with physical things. We still use our minds to order, consider, and categorize these ideas, but the ideas come from our senses, from our experiences. While Plato would say that ideas are the most real of all substance, Aristotle would say that an idea has no substance of its own, it has no independent existence except as we relate it to the material things we experience.
What about human nature? Aristotle would say that human nature is basically innocent. A person is what experience makes of the person. Aristotle was firmly committed to the workings of cause and effect. Nothing exists without a prior cause. Therefore everything we are is the result of previous causation.
Where do you arrive if you assume a previous cause to a previous cause to a previous cause, etc.? You eventually come back to God, who is, according to Aristotle, the First Cause. The First Cause is the Uncaused Cause; He is the Unmoved Mover. Aristotle’s God is impersonal force, the Beginning of a long chain of cause and effect reaching from the very beginning until now.
What about evil? Evil is refusing to accept the universe as it is – as God has designed it to be. Hence, evil is largely ignorance, but contains an element of human rebellion. The perfect society could occur if humanity would come to accept the universe as it is and fall in line with the orderly flow of everything. Moral agency exists in that we may choose to follow the course of nature, or rather choose to fight against it, which will eventually fail.
2. Synthetic Christian Philosophy
In tracing the contours of this period, one philosopher has commented: “It is impossible to treat the philosophy of the so-called Middle ages like that of any other period. We are concerned in effect with a period lasting for ten centuries or more, depending on where one thinks it begins and ends” (Hamlyn 91). It is a period characterized by two main elements. First, it was backward looking as it looked to the giants of Greek Classical philosophy, even though after around the sixth century A.D. a direct knowledge of Greek was lacking in significant ways in the West. (Hamlyn 91, 96) Second, philosophy became subordinate to Christianity. Although a distinction remained between theology and philosophy, as well as faith and reason, this period is characterized as one in which a synthesis was sought between philosophy and theology (Solomon and Higgins, 79). This era of Christian Philosophy that we will explore here from about 100 A.D to about 1650 can be divided into the Neo-Platonism period of about 100 to 1250 and the Thomistic period from about 1250 to 1650. Although in some senses Thomism (named for Thomas Aquinas) persists as a strong influence until this day.
The Platonic and Neo Platonic period @100 until @1250
Later interpreters of Plato, called Neo-Platonist had a philosophical influence in the second century on Christian thought. It also for many centuries had significant influence on Islamic thought when that world religion arose many centuries later. Two aspects of Platonism that appealed the most to the Neo-Platonist was its tendency toward transcendence and a type of anti-rationalism which insisted that the most important truths were beyond concepts articulated by reason (Jones 7). They emphasized Plato’s contention that the world of the senses was inferior. This worked well with the mood of the age in the West in the third century A.D. They sought for a truth beyond reason (Jones 7). This trend toward otherworldliness reinforced a desire to find a vision of another and better world. (7-8). Hence some found this need answered in Christianity and articulated this in Christian Neo-Platonism forms and some found it in the mystery cults of the time. The most influential Neo-Platonist thinker was Plotinus (204-270 A.D.).
In the early centuries of the church, it became very important to formulate a coherent body of doctrine. This is why it was often dominated by a series of struggles to eliminate heresy and establish an orthodox faith. Therefore, philosophy and theology traveled the road together for a long time together during this period. Augustine (354-430 A.D.) played an important role in this. As he sought to minister to the world around him, he wrote to explain why God had allowed Rome to fall to the barbarians. As he wrote he addressed issues having to do with God’s infinitude and humankind’s finitude; God being omnipotent and whether or not humankind really had free will (Jones xviii). For centuries after the death of Augustine “there was little philosophical activity-these were dark ages indeed” (Jones xviii).
Philosophy and theology continued to travel the road of inquiry together throughout the medieval period in the continuous, passionate pursuit of an understanding of the nature of the world and how the faith should relate to it. With the founding of universities in Western Europe, learning and culture was thriving at an ever increasing level along these lines. The church and the university pursued this vigorously together and in so doing solidified an institution which by the end of this very long period had moved from the simplicity and otherworldliness of the earlier centuries to being very much this-worldly in terms of becoming an institution of great social and political influence and power (Jones xviii).
The Thomastic period @1250 until @1650
Philosophical speculation during this part of the medieval period concentrated on the status of universals and “defining and delimiting the respective spheres of faith and reason” (Jones xviii). Universals had to do with truths or propositions which are existent or operative everywhere, under all conditions at all times, or truth which is comprehensively broad and versatile (Webster 1291). The interaction of faith and reason was a paramount concern. One great scholar, of the early medieval period, named Anselm had said just a century or two before “It seems to me a case of negligence if, after becoming firm in our faith, we do not strive to understand what we believe” (Tarnas 177). In order to accomplish these tasks, the philosopher/theologians of this period, known as Scholastics, devised and refined the instruments of logical analysis.
The term “Thomastic” or “Thomist” refers to the great Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274) who put together a synthesis of classical learning and Christian insights (hence the title of this section), so that a traditional Christian viewpoint of the divine nature of God was described or understood primarily, yet not exclusively, in Aristotelian concepts of matter, actuality and potentiality (Jones xviii). The vast influence of Aquinas in formulating theology and philosophy in a form which utilized Aristotle cannot be overstated. His mark on traditional Roman Catholic theology and some aspects of 20th century fundamentalism is still significant. For Aquinas, like Aristotle, the belief has been that we know concrete things, and from this, we posit universals. (Tarnas 185).
After Aquinas, philosophers turned from large-scale synthesis to analysis of relatively small-scale technical problems. Some tended to be more empirically oriented; others were logicians refining the methods of Aquinas (Jones xviii). However, to understand medieval Scholastic thinking it is important to understand for all persons, whether claiming to lean toward Plato or Aristotle, that logical analysis, no matter how acute, operated within limits set up for it by transcendent truths. These truths always determined the parameters of reason. The historian of philosophy, W.T. Jones states with regard to this: “The ultimate criterion for all knowledge and the ultimate sanction for all conduct was not the concurrence of human minds guided by reason but the authority of a divinely inspired text and a divinely established institution” (Jones xviii).
Another use of the term “synthesis” for this period has been called the “Medieval Synthesis.” Somewhat related to the Thomist synthesis described above, was the concept that all of life was united by a common world view of order, certainty and serenity. This world was seen as a reflection of a greater, divine invisible, reality.
This world view was challenged during the period of the Renaissance and Reformation of the 16th century. Medieval philosophy, with its emphasis on an infinite God and finite humankind did not satisfy humanity at the time of the Renaissance. This is not to say that the concept of an infinite God was rejected, only an emphasis shifted. As W.T. Jones comments regarding this shift: “Shaped by capitalism and the new money power, by the idea of sovereignty and the ideals of Humanism, by discovery of America and the Protestant reformation, this new man was an individual increasingly concerned with the world and its values” (Jones xvii). Philosophy at this time entered “a period that saw the flowering of much else-of science, of art and of literature-was a period in which philosophy was at a low ebb” (Hamlyn 123). As classical/Greek philosophy had been taken over by the Christian’s insistence on theocentrism,(God-centered thought and reflection), Medieval philosophy was overthrown in this period by scientist’s discovery of nature (Jones xvii). The mind set of humankind was one of “penetrating and reflecting nature’s secrets,” “immensely expanding the known world,” and the tendency to “defy traditional authorities and assert a truth based on his own judgment” (Tarnas 224).
This is actually the milieu into which the Protestant Reformation came forth. To view the Protestant Reformation as mainly a religious movement is correct. But to assume that it happened in a vacuum is but a limited understanding of the impact of the cultural, political, social and philosophical environment which gave rise to it. The Protestant Reformation reflected the significant philosophical and social movements of the time, notably humanism.and.nationalism. For our purposes we will focus here on humanism, which is certainly not to be equated with secular humanism. Instead, a better description of its meaning begins with looking at an atmosphere of the scholarly humaista of Italy. These persons were rediscovering the accomplishment of the human spirit. Within this was the discovery and interest in the original languages of the ancients, for Classical literature, as well as embracing a perspective of the free investigation of things outside of the mode of church authority. It was a time in which scholars like Erasmus, Luther and later Calvin studied the original manuscripts of the Scriptures often asking questions and answering them in a way in which the authority of the Medieval Church was called into question.
3. The Enlightenment @1650 until 1850
Historian Tarnas says of this period: “The Scientific Revolution was both the final expression of the Renaissance and its definitive contribution to the modern world view”(Tarnas 248). The term “Enlightenment” for this period, is more accurately applied to the late 1700s. However, we will use it to describe a period starting around 1650 when the use of the scientific method was in full swing. Others have also called this period an age of reason, or of rationalism. The most pervasive characteristic was a common opposition to any truth or claim to knowledge based solely on authority (Surber 24). The three main sources of authority had been: the church, the state, and Greco-Roman antiquity. The major objective became that of overcoming “medieval barbarianism” with a vision of culture and civilization which was progressive beyond traditional authority (25). The story of this era, involves the major thinkers of the Enlightenment, reaction to the Enlightenment, and then other important movements which emerged after this reaction.
Five figures of note, briefly mentioned here, illustrated ideas which were taking root before the Enlightenment, flourishing during this period, and continued to have influence afterward. The first of these figures was Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) who wholeheartedly adopted the new scientific world view (Jones xviii). W.T. Jones summarizes: “Only matter in motion exists; men’s thoughts and desires are but the by-products of motions occurring in their cortices and caused by events in the physical environment. It follows that there are no metaphysically based standards by which to determine the objective truth or the true value of desires” (Jones xviii). Therefore, there needed to be a sovereign in the human realm that would establish clear authority in order to maintain what is good and true (Jones xviii).
Second, was Rene Descartes (1596-1650) whose method of thought could be described as beginning by a person holding God and the world around them in suspicion. From there, one was to use the method of deduction, in which every principle must be derived or ‘deduced’ from prior principles which have already been established on the basis of other principles or premises. Ultimately, all principles must be derived from a fundamental set of axioms and definitions that are self evident. The axiom which served as a premise that is beyond all doubt was the famous line of Descartes “I think, therefore I am.” Descartes also believed that he could prove God’s existence by this means: “It is impossible that the idea of God which is in us should not have God himself as its cause” (Solomon and Higgins 181-183).
Third, was John Locke (1632-1704) who had a different approach to wrestling with the philosophical problems of the time. Jones sums it up: “Instead of dismissing perception as unreliable and holding that pure reason can work out a correct metaphysical solution, he held that the concepts of reason must meet the test of what he called ‘the historical plain method’-that is, they must be verified in sense experience” (Jones xviii).
Fourth was David Hume (1711-1776), in whose hands the Cartesian system (meaning Descartes above) was shaken in the minds of some. His rugged empirical criterion produced a philosophy of thoroughgoing skepticism. It was not only a skepticism toward religion and the existence of God, but toward the optimism of the rationality of the Enlightenment, and even the optimism of scientific reason. As one historian comments: “Hume tended toward naturalism, to the idea that what reason could not do, nature would do for us anyway. If reason cannot guarantee us knowledge, nature nevertheless provides us with the good sense to make our way in the world. If reason cannot guarantee morals, our human natures nevertheless supply us with adequate sentiments to behave reasonably toward one another” (Solomon and Higgins 197).
Fifth was Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) another philosopher of the Enlightenment period, who could easily be identified as the most important figure of this period. W.T. Jones writes: “Kant recognized the destructive potential of Hume’s critique; one of the main drives that animated his thought was the desire to answer Hume’s criticisms of the claims of science and to show that an a priori knowledge of nature is possible” (Jones 379). For something to be a priori, is for it to be known independently of sense perception and for this reason held to be beyond question (Jones xx). What Kant did was to distinguish the realm of experience from that which transcends experience, called “metaphysics.” The latter had come to be rejected by those such as Hume mostly because the test of truth is agreement of the mind with an external object or what can be “proven externally.” But as Tarnas, explains, in Kant’s view: “All human cognition of the world is channeled through the human mind’s categories. The necessity and certainty of scientific knowledge derive from the mind, and are embedded in the mind’s perception and understanding of the world. They do not derive from nature independent of the mind. Observations alone do not give man certain laws; rather, those laws reflect the laws of man’s mental organization. In the act of human cognition, the mind does not conform to things; rather, things conform to the mind” (Tarnas 343).
As the 1800’s dawned reactions to the Enlightenment in general continued as the French Revolution and the Industrial Revolution did not deliver on all their promises of a tidy, rational and better world. The type of humanity which emerged in the nineteenth century was very different and rejected the optimism of humanity found during the Renaissance, and then the Enlightenment. The new humanity of the nineteenth century was increasingly unsure of themselves-doubtful of the validity of their values, of their ability to communicate in a meaningful way with others, and of their ability even to know themselves (Jones 10).
4. Modern to Postmodern @1850 to present
As we end this section taking us up to the middle of the nineteenth century, therefore, we will look at three major movements which emerged in the nineteenth century which began to focus on dealing with new questions and the concerns of nineteenth century humanity. These were Romanticism, Utilitarianism, and Modern Materialism. Some were rejections of the basic tenets of the Enlightenment; some carried these tenets forward in new directions.
First, the most radical departure or reaction to the Enlightenment was the literary and intellectual movement know as Romanticism. This movement was a varied, somewhat wide and complex phenomenon. As with every other thinker and movement in this lecture, it will only be touched upon here covering some essential elements. Basically, this movement reacted to the aspects of the Enlightenment which had established a conviction about order, rule, measure, “both in the universe at large and in man, in particular, everything can be neatly pigeonholed and labeled” (Jones 102). To the Romantic mind set (I hope you understand that we are not simply talking about people’s love lives, but a serious intellectual movement.) the universe seemed bigger, richer, more varied and exciting and more of “a unity than the thinkers of the Age of Reason had allowed” (Jones 102). The focus of the attack was against reason. “To the Romantic mind, the distinctions that reason makes are artificial, imposed….they divide and in dividing destroy, the living whole of reality, hence the battle cry: ‘We murder to dissect'” (Jones 102). The way to get in touch with the real, according to the Romantic was for one to divest themselves in the “whole apparatus of learning” by becoming like children, or simple uneducated humankind and by attending to nature in contemplation and communion rather than by the scientific method. (Jones 102). The Romantics were also unique in their concept of reality, a reality disclosed in being at one with nature, or in the “rapt contemplation of a beautiful work of art … ” (Jones 105).
Second there was Utilitarianism, which instead of reacting against the Enlightenment, carried forth the project of the Age of Reason with the notion that the universe was basically simple and that the mind can fathom its mysteries given enough time and application of the newest developments of scientific methodology. However, their main concern was to apply this methodology to “impose on value-judgments the same criteria that hold in science” (Jones 172). In applying this “moral science” leading Utilitarians, such as the Englishman Jeremy Bentham looked at aspects of English society, and decided that the moral would be that which was most useful to suit the purposes of a moral society based on rational behavior. Morality would be tested by the results it manifested, in much the same manner that a scientific experiment would be performed and its results interpreted
Third, was the development of Materialism, an orientation toward believing that human beings were completely material entities and as such were part of a thoroughly material natural world. During the Enlightenment, a materialistic notion began to be explored, especially with regard to the development of economics and the analysis of human society as the location of materialistic processes which could explain, in their view, the dynamics of society and culture, with human beings and institutions being merely products of these economic and cultural forces (Surber 70).
But it is important to understand the way in which this was at first eclipsed by the German Idealist movement, which also helped, ironically, to give birth to the most important expression of Materialism, in the 1800’s.
After the time of the French Revolution German idealism was taking shape in Germany. This began with Kant, whose ideas are mentioned above. After Kant, G.W.F Hegal (1770-1831) came upon the scene and with his “absolute idealism” turned things in the direction toward shaping into a comprehensive and antimaterialistic philosophical vision (71). It is important to understand that Hegel and others did affirm that a kind of knowledge did arise from experience. But, this yields no valuable or real knowledge unless in comprehending the particular one understands how particular things fit into a general overall concept of things. Thus knowledge is incomplete for the individual, in terms of the knowing subject experiencing various unique and disjointed things. In order for knowledge to be complete, subjective experience must be related to an overarching ideal or universal concept of all things, and all means a comprehensive system (71). But this system is not static, it is dynamic, involving change and process. Here is where the idea of Hegel’s dialectic comes in. Tarnas explains and summarizes: “At the foundation of Hegel’s thought was his understanding of a dialectic, according to which all things unfold in a continuing evolutionary process whereby every state of being inevitably brings forth its opposite. The interaction between these opposites then generates a third stage in which the opposites are integrated-they are at one overcome and fulfilled-in a rich and higher synthesis, which in turn becomes the basis for another dialectical process of opposition and synthesis” (Tarnas 379). Hegel’s philosophical vision was greatly influential for thinkers in many different areas of enquiry as it gave a comprehensive unified outlook on all of reality as being in process. It is also important to note that Hegel did not see this going on into infinity. For him, things ultimately would lead to a higher unity in what religion describes as God. However, this “God” was not necessarily in his view the God of traditional Christianity.
So, what does this have to do Materialism? Influential thinkers who followed Hegel, such as Marx, took Hegel in a different direction. Marx, in whom the ideology of socialism and communism are rooted, “was responsive to the notion of development, a notion that was becoming a major element in the nineteenth century climate of opinion” (Jones 178). He applied this philosophy and his naturalistic view of history to the social forces of history. Tarnas summarizes: “The philosophical, religious and moral values of each age could be plausibly comprehended as determined by economic and political variables, whereby control over the means of production was maintained by the most powerful class. The entire superstructure of human belief could be seen as reflecting the more basic struggle for material power….Class struggle, not civilized progress, was the program of the foreseeable future … ” (Tarnas 329).
With the likes of Marx there was also Charles Darwin (1809-1882) who as modern thinkers “perceived man’s cultural values, psychological motivations, and conscious awareness as historically relative phenomena derived from unconscious political, economic, and instinctual impulses of an entirely naturalistic quality” (Tarnas 329). We briefly mention Darwin here as a part of this intellectual climate because of the far-reaching influence his theories have had. It must be noted, however, that he was not a philosopher or a seminal thinker in terms of the schema of evolutionary thinking. As philosophy historian Jones comments: “…the concept of development was in the air … Darwin felt this interest and focused it on a specific biological problem; in doing so he collected an immense amount of concrete evidence and ‘proved’ … what had been a philosophical hypothesis … this gave great impetus to the use of the concept of development as a general methodological tool” (Jones 192).
Works Cited
Blackburn, Simon. Think: A Compelling Introduction To Philosophy. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999. Print.
Earle, William James. Introduction to Philosophy.McGraw-Hill, 1992. Print.
Hamlyn, D.W. The Pelican History of Western Philosophy. New York: Viking Penguin Inc., 1987. Print.
Jones, W.T. The Classical Mind. New York: Harcourt Brace-Jovanovich, Inc, 2nd ed. Vol. 1 of A History of Western Philosophy. 5 vols. 1970. Print.
—. The Medieval Mind. New York: Harcourt Brace-Jovanovich, Inc, 2nd ed. Vol. 2 of A History of Western Philosophy. 5 vols. 1969. Print.
—. Hobbes to Hume. New York: Harcourt Brace-Jovanovich, Inc, 2nd ed. Vol. 3 of A History of Western Philosophy. 5 vols. 1969. Print.
Solomon, Robert C., and Kathleen M. Higgins.A Short History of Philosophy. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996. Print.
Surber, Jere Paul. Culture and Critique: An Introduction to the Critical Discourses of Cultural Studies. Boulder: Westview Press, 1998. Print.
Tarnas, Richard. The Passion of the Western Mind: Understanding the Ideas That Have Shaped Our World View. New York: Ballantine Books, 1991. Print.

Briefly describe whether or not you believe that this person’s philosophy is at all compatible with a Christian worldview.

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Out of the lecture: “Movements and Trends in Western Thought: Part 1” note section III. The Enlightenment 1650 until 1850. Citing at least one thinker or movement featured in the lecture, summarize his philosophy, noting especially key words for describing it. Then briefly describe whether or not you believe that this person’s philosophy is at all compatible with a Christian worldview. Be sure that you do some background research beyond the lecture to formulate your answer. Many internet sites will be helpful in constructing your understanding. If you need help to remember what is encapsulated in the idea of worldview, see Cosgrove Chapter 1.

What part of speech do we listen for to determine Relationships?

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What part of speech do we listen for to determine Relationships?

Why were ancient Populations so taken with stars and planets?

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Why were ancient Populations so taken with stars and planets?

Please note that, according to Axia College and course policies, late assignments will be penalized with a 10% grade deduction for each day late.

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Please note that, according to Axia College and course policies, late assignments will be penalized with a 10% grade deduction for each day late.

Week 4 – Individual Assignment: Comparison Essay

Resource: Writing Wizard at the Center for Writing Excellence

Write a 350- to 700-word essay comparing Continental, Pragmatic, and Analytic philosophies.

In your essay, include:

A definition and description of each school of thought
A comparison between all three (3) schools.
At least one example from each that adequately describes the school’s position on a topic of your choice.

Format your paper consistent with APA guidelines.

If you have any questions about the assignment or need assistance, please post a note to me in your Individual forum.

Please don’t forget to post your Certificate of Originality along with your assignment response.

Describe how each idea contributes toward a better understanding of life.

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Metaphysics and Theories of Reality in philosophy.

•Include at least one paragraph for each of the following:
◦Fully describe each idea and why it is important to you.
◦Describe how each idea contributes toward a better understanding of life
◦Describe how each idea has relevance and application towards leading a better life.

With so much in the night sky, why are we not able to see more with the naked eye?

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With so much in the night sky, why are we not able to see more with the naked eye?

What are three things wrong with the following theory CARING- One of several Feminist Theories of Ethics.

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What are three things wrong with the following theory

CARING- One of several Feminist Theories of Ethics.

150 WORDS.

What is three problems with this theory WILL TO POWER – Existentialist Theory of Nietzsche.

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What is three problems with this theory

WILL TO POWER – Existentialist Theory of Nietzsche.

150 WORDS

When talking about the new openess of the GLBT culture. What are your thoughts about same sex marriage?

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When talking about the new openess of the GLBT culture. What are your thoughts about same sex marriage?

Why don’t human systems function according to principles of sustainability?

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Why don’t human systems function according to principles of sustainability?

How are “True North Principles” related to personal values?

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How are “True North Principles” related to personal values?

Your own political philosophy, values or ideology. (Justify your assessment by clearly explaining your political values and why they lead you to support or oppose the amendment.)

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The formal process of amending the Constitution is cumbersome and slow. While this fact explains why relatively few amendments have been adopted, it does not discourage advocates of constitutional change from proposing them. Four amendment proposals that have gained considerable attention are the Balanced Budget Amendment, the Birthright Citizenship Amendment, the Equal Rights Amendment, and the Overturn Citizens United Amendment. Select one of these proposals as the topic of your initial post and use the assigned resources to inform yourself about its purpose and the arguments of its supporters and critics.

In your initial post of at least 250 words, briefly summarize what the proposed amendment would do and the problem its proponents say it will solve. Explain the main pros and cons in the debate about the amendment. Evaluate the proposed amendment from two perspectives:

Your own political philosophy, values or ideology. (Justify your assessment by clearly explaining your political values and why they lead you to support or oppose the amendment.)
The likelihood that the proposed amendment will eventually be ratified to become part of the Constitution. (Justify your assessment by explaining how the proposal will or will not, in your judgment, survive the ratification process.)
Fully respond to all parts of the question. Write in your own words. Support your position with APA citations to two or more different resources required for this discussion.

What if the other side frames the problem differently than you do?

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THIS IS FOR A NEGOTIATION SKILLS CLASS: What if the other side frames the problem differently than you do? Provide examples from you own experience in answering these questions. Please answer in 175 words and cite url or references used for class discussion.

Do you believe that her points have real world validity?

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Carol Gilligan. Do you believe that her points have real world validity? That is, is womens’ moral development different from mens write 150-200 words supply reference apa format

They must wear expensive shoes and have an expensive automobile. Ellen applying is a lexicographic rule in her search for a millionaire husband.

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True or false (if false, why) Ellen stated that she would marry a millionaire. She applied a heuristic in judging men. They must wear expensive shoes and have an expensive automobile. Ellen applying is a lexicographic rule in her search for a millionaire husband.

What basis – if any – exists for valuing reason as a positive good, as opposed to simply acknowledging its existence? Incorporate the philosopher(s) Plato, Aristotle, Smith, and/or Doyle in your response.

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What basis – if any – exists for valuing reason as a positive good, as opposed to simply acknowledging its existence? Incorporate the philosopher(s) Plato, Aristotle, Smith, and/or Doyle in your response.

In “Some Moral Minima,” Lenn Goodman argues that there are certain things that are simply wrong. Do you think Goodman is right?

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Relativism and Morality
In “Some Moral Minima,” Lenn Goodman argues that there are certain things that are simply wrong. Do you think Goodman is right? Using specific examples, explore the challenges Goodman presents to relativism. Determine whether you think there are such universal moral requirements, and defend your answer in a well-argued three-page paper.

Your paper must be formatted according to APA (6th edition) style. You don’t need any sources other than the Goodman paper and the text for our course. However, you must cite all your references properly.

When it comes to training vs. education, usually lecturing isn’t as effective, do you think this is a true statement? Why or why not?

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When it comes to training vs. education, usually lecturing isn’t as effective, do you think this is a true statement? Why or why not?

One of the ideas often (conveniently) found in Mill’s Utilitarian Ethics as we discussed last week is the EVERYBODY’s concerns count EQUALLY in Utilitarianism and in what ethicist John Rawls called “The Minimum Conception of Morality.”

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One of the ideas often (conveniently) found in Mill’s Utilitarian Ethics as we discussed last week is the EVERYBODY’s concerns count EQUALLY in Utilitarianism and in what ethicist John Rawls called “The Minimum Conception of Morality.”
Yes, very precisely it means that 20th Century corporate responsibility ethics (and now 21st Century) does not discriminate against anybody but also does not grant privilege to anybody. While it sounds easy, people most impacted by problems will almost always ask, “well, what about us in the middle of this (situation)? What is going to be done to us who have suffered so badly compared to the rest of you?”
And what shall we make of such a concept when everybody in “the commons” is not all involved on an equal basis?

From your ethical perspective, should government have an absolute prohibition on commercial access or should there be a working compromise with companies?

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The Federal government manages millions of acres of forest land across the country, but there are increasing pressures on the agencies to permit varying levels of commercial access to the timber, other resources, and the water flows. Should the government have an absolute prohibition on commercial access or should there be a working compromise with companies?

From your ethical perspective, should government have an absolute prohibition on commercial access or should there be a working compromise with companies?

From the ethical perspective a particular group to which you currently belong, or previously belonged, should government have an absolute prohibition on commercial access or should there be a working compromise with companies?

Instead of the Federal government, suppose you managed millions of acres of forest land. Given you own set of ethical perspectives and values, what would you do?

Your initial post should be at least 250 words in length. Support your claims with examples from required material(s) and/or other scholarly resources, and properly cite any references.

Individualists provide ______________ Answer 1. creativity 2. clarity of direction 3. consistency 4. warmth and support

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Individualists provide ______________ Answer 1. creativity 2. clarity of direction 3. consistency 4. warmth and support

Would You Lie? Please respond to the following: Describe what you would do in this situation. Do you lie or tell the truth? Explain your rationale.

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Would You Lie? Please respond to the following:

Describe what you would do in this situation. Do you lie or tell the truth?
Explain your rationale.

•You are out for a walk one night and you see a man running toward you. He
looks terrified, stressed, and panicked. He comes up to you with tears in his eyes
and says, “I am going to hide right here. I can’t run anymore. I didn’t do anything
wrong. Please, promise me you won’t tell them where I am!” So you promise the
man, he hides behind a bush, and you keep walking.

•Ten seconds later four men turn the corner where the panicked man had come
from and head toward you. As they get closer you see that they are, indeed, police
officers. They walk up to you and ask if you have seen the man they were chasing.

Identify 2 prevailing or competing philosophical perspectives at work during the 20th century.

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Identify 2 prevailing or competing philosophical perspectives at work during the 20th century.

Provide an overview of each of the philosophies—where it arose, who created it, and its major tenets.

Explain how each of these prominent philosophies of the 20th century reflected the changes in industry and the individual.

Another’ big picture’ question that I’d like you to grapple with this term is, are we more alike or different?

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Another’ big picture’ question that I’d like you to grapple with this term is, are we more alike or different? The “we” in this question can be defined any way you like, but I intend it to refer to any two or more groups that we commonly view as distinct (e.g., based on gender, age, religion, culture/ethnicity, geography, etc.). A corollary to this question is, what’s more interesting: our similarities or our differences? Tell me what you think so far, and be sure to cite evidence from the chapter or elsewhere in your argument.

Suppose you are the parent of a three-year old son.

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Suppose you are the parent of a three-year old son. This summer you are cruising the Atlantic on an expensive cruise ship, and disaster strikes–the ship sinks. You somehow manage to get on a lifeboat with a motor. All around you people are drowning and crying for help. Suddenly, you see your son a hundred yards away. He is frantically trying to stay afloat. In order to save your son, you must drive the lifeboat to him. However, just as you are about to do that, you see that two children are about to drown ten yards away in the opposite direction.

What would you do? What would act utilitarianism require you to do? What do you think is the morally right thing to do?

Discuss how difficult it is to market to markets when the individual alone is so complex .

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Discuss how difficult it is to market to markets when the individual alone is so complex .

How does satisfaction differ conceptually from attitude?

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How does satisfaction differ conceptually from attitude?

Value can be a nebulous concept. Please explain this statement.

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Value can be a nebulous concept. Please explain this statement.

According to Beauvoir in the Excerpts from The Ethics of Ambiguity (1948): According to Beauvoir, obligations to others exist because:

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According to Beauvoir in the Excerpts from The Ethics of Ambiguity (1948): According to Beauvoir, obligations to others exist because:

1. we have particular relationships with others that prescribe a particular kind of treatment
2. respect for others is logically required by the moral law.
3. to be genuinely free, we must rely on others and thus must treat them well
4. None of the above