Clean Air Act of 1970a summary of the purpose of the law as it relates to human health and the environment.

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Clean Air Act of 1970a summary of the purpose of the law as it relates to human health and the environment.

What is the basic difference between using a subsidy to induce producers to install antipollution equipment and a tax on producers who pollute?

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What is the basic difference between using a subsidy to induce producers to install antipollution equipment and a tax on producers who pollute?

Why is it deemed necessary to protect the environment? What does it mean to society? To business? To the individual? To future populations?

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Why is it deemed necessary to protect the environment? What does it mean to society? To business? To the individual? To future populations?

100 words min, no cut and paste, cite refs Who determines what is organic, and what does it really mean as there are not real standards regarding this. Also, same issue with “green.” Who regulates these issues adnd who should?

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100 words min, no cut and paste, cite refs

Who determines what is organic, and what does it really mean as there are not real standards regarding this. Also, same issue with “green.” Who regulates these issues adnd who should?

What are some examples of forecasting contamination? make answer as brief as possible.

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What are some examples of forecasting contamination? make answer as brief as possible.

For many years Gerber has manufactured baby food in small, single sized containers. In conducting an environmental scan, identify three trends or factors that might significantly affect this company’s future business and how Gerber might respond to these changes.

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For many years Gerber has manufactured baby food in small, single sized containers. In conducting an environmental scan, identify three trends or factors that might significantly affect this company’s future business and how Gerber might respond to these changes.

Evaluate and describe the relationship between standards of living, fertility rates, hunger, and local environmental stress.

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100 words min, no cut and paste, cite refs

Evaluate and describe the relationship between standards of living, fertility rates, hunger, and local environmental stress.

Why are ecosystems considered closed-looped systems?

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Why are ecosystems considered closed-looped systems?

which of the following describes changes in the 5 criteria air pollution in the US since the enacment of the clean air act.

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which of the following describes changes in the 5 criteria air pollution in the US since the enacment of the clean air act.

a. emissions have decreased but abien air quality remains the same
b. they have decreased substantially
b. theya re about the same
d. they have increased because of economic growth and more automobiles
e. they have become steadily worse

Discuss the impact of this environmental issue on a sustainable world, and provide a critical analysis of the current issue.

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You are required to critically analyze one of the following five (5) environmental issues that have been addressed in Chap 1-8 and the associated course material to demonstrate your comprehension of the fundamental characteristics associated with the concept of a sustainable world. The Final Paper should incorporate student research, assigned readings, class discussions, and personal experience.

Environmental Issues
• Choice One – Are alternative energy sources the answer to ending human dependence on oil? (Chap 2 & 8)
• Choice Two –Is global warming due to human actions? Can the human race take action to stop global warming? (Chap 2)
• Choice Three – Is genetic engineering the answer to ending global hunger?
• Choice Four – Should cars be more efficient? (Chapter 6)
• Choice Five – Is wind power green? (Chap 8)
Based on material obtained in class as well as outside material, you must:
1. Present both sides of the argument. You may address one side at a time or point-by-point. It is important to maintain an unbiased approach and to fully discuss both sides of the issue. In other words, the answers “yes” and “no” should be thoroughly explored for the question/issue you select.
2. Discuss the impact of this environmental issue on a sustainable world, and provide a critical analysis of the current issue.
The paper must be eight to ten pages in length and formatted according to APA style. You must use at least four scholarly resources (at least one of which can be found in the Ashford Online Library – Please see below for access) in addition to the textbook to support your claims and subclaims.
The recommended readings listed for Week Five contain articles associated with each of the five choices. Cite your resources in text and on the reference page.

Writing the Final Paper
The Final Paper:
• Must be eight to ten double-spaced pages in length, and formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center
• Must begin with an introductory paragraph that has a succinct thesis statement.
• Must address the topic of the paper with critical thought.
• Must end with a conclusion that reaffirms your thesis.
• Must use at least four scholarly resources, including a minimum of one from the Ashford Online Library.
• Must document all sources in APA style, as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.
• Must include a separate reference page, formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.

What waste disposal methods are available to humans and how might they be more effective? What initiatives or incentives could governments create to better equip citizens for managing their own waste, garbage, and recyclables?

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What waste disposal methods are available to humans and how might they be more effective? What initiatives or incentives could governments create to better equip citizens for managing their own waste, garbage, and recyclables?

Your initial post should be at least 150 words in length. Support your claims with examples from required material(s) and/or other scholarly resources, and properly cite any references.

Identify the top five polluters and the top five chemicals released in your county.

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This lab activity follows up on this week’s discussion topics and gives you an opportunity to consider polluters in your community.
• Visit Scorecard: The Pollution Information Site (http://scorecard.goodguide.com/) and/or U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (http://www.epa.gov/)
• Identify the top five polluters and the top five chemicals released in your county.
• Determine the number of Superfund sites in your area.
• Based on the information you find on these sites, list five ways that you can take action in your community.
Submit this information as a Word document.

Define the main goals and strategies of green intelligence. Do you think market-based approaches could save the planet? Why or why not?

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Define the main goals and strategies of green intelligence. Do you think market-based approaches could save the planet? Why or why not?

Your initial post should be at least 150 words in length. Support your claims with examples from required material(s) and/or other scholarly resources, and properly cite any references.
Your initial post should be at least 150 words in length.
Support your claims with examples from required material(s) and/or other scholarly resources, and properly cite any references.

Most of us are aware of the energy concerns of today and the future. There are many pros and cons to the energy sources we currently use. For this forum choose one of the following to discuss:

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Most of us are aware of the energy concerns of today and the future. There are many pros and cons to the energy sources we currently use. For this forum choose one of the following to discuss:

If you had to argue the benefits of nuclear energy, what would they be? What are the risks? Support your claims with at least two references in addition to your text in support of your position. Cite your sources in APA format.
If you had to argue the benefits of wind energy, what would they be? What are the risks? Support your claims with at least two references in addition to your text in support of your position. Cite your sources in APA format.

All energy sources have drawbacks. Even the clean hydropower option has negative ramifications. Weigh those against the possible consequences of developing nuclear power, a controversial alternative to fossil fuels. Discuss the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster as well as the 20th century Chernobyl nuclear meltdown in drawing conclusions about risk versus reward of nuclear energy use.

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All energy sources have drawbacks. Even the clean hydropower option has negative ramifications. Weigh those against the possible consequences of developing nuclear power, a controversial alternative to fossil fuels. Discuss the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster as well as the 20th century Chernobyl nuclear meltdown in drawing conclusions about risk versus reward of nuclear energy use.

The paper must be two to three pages in length and formatted according to APA style. You must use at least one scholarly resource other than the textbook to support your claims and subclaims. Cite your resources in text and on the reference page

The global water cycle provides renewable water, but a number of factors affect how much freshwater is available for human consumption. Describe these factors and circumstances. When do human interventions in water availability pose serious problems to freshwater accessibility?

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The global water cycle provides renewable water, but a number of factors affect how much freshwater is available for human consumption. Describe these factors and circumstances. When do human interventions in water availability pose serious problems to freshwater accessibility?

Your initial post should be 150 words in length. Support your claims with examples from required material(s) and/or other scholarly resources, and properly cite any references.

Climate change is an environmental issue in the news almost daily, and air pollution impacts us on a global level. What are the implications of global warming? Do you think the efforts to improve air quality are worth the economic costs?

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Climate change is an environmental issue in the news almost daily, and air pollution impacts us on a global level. What are the implications of global warming? Do you think the efforts to improve air quality are worth the economic costs?

Your initial post should be at least 150 words in length. Support your claims with examples from required material(s) and/or other scholarly resources, and properly cite any references.

Identify natural and human-made causes of climate change visible in the computer simulation.

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Question 1 Identify natural and human-made causes of climate change visible in the computer simulation. According to the computer model, how have sources of heat-trapping pollution changed from 1750 to today? How does the simulation predict they will change by 2050?
Question 2. According to the computer model and your readings, which source(s) of heat-trapping pollution contribute the most to climate change? Explain.
Question 3. Recalling your observations from the three time periods, how has the thickening blanket of heat-trapping pollution affected Earth’s temperature between 1750 and today? How will the blanket and Earth’s temperature look in 2050? Does the simulation predict that positive feedbacks will kick in by 2050 (e.g., does the temperature increase appear to be accelerating)? According to your readings, what might explain positive feedbacks?
Question 4. Briefly describe three impacts of climate change on ecosystems and biodiversity. Cite examples from course readings.
Question 5. Briefly describe three impacts of climate change on people – e.g., economic, health, safety, national security. Cite examples from course readings.

Review the Final Paper instructions in Week Five (BELOW). Review the attached “Sample: Outline.” Format your outline for the Final Paper according to the “Sample: Outline.” (NOTE: In the “Sample: Outline,” it states that the thesis statement is the last one to three sentences of the introduction.

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Class name: SCI207 Dependence of Man on the Environment
Subject name: Outline for Final Paper below.
Outline of Final Paper
Review the Final Paper instructions in Week Five (BELOW). Review the attached “Sample: Outline.” Format your outline for the Final Paper according to the “Sample: Outline.” (NOTE: In the “Sample: Outline,” it states that the thesis statement is the last one to three sentences of the introduction. However, the thesis statement must be one sentence in length and the last sentence of the introduction.)
The outline must contain:
Introduction with thesis statement
At least five body paragraphs
Conclusion
Reference page
The draft must be three to five pages in length and formatted according to APA style. You must use at least three scholarly resources (at least two of which can be found in the Ashford)

What is the relationship between landscape and psychological well being? After defining this relationship, discuss how the presence or absence of natural beauty in your environment affects your psychological well being on an everyday basis.

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Examine the obvious environmental impacts as well as significant social and physical ramifications of urban sprawl. What is the relationship between landscape and psychological well being? After defining this relationship, discuss how the presence or absence of natural beauty in your environment affects your psychological well being on an everyday basis. Give at least one specific example.

Your initial post should be at least 150 words in length. Support your claims with examples from required material(s) and/or other scholarly resources, and properly cite any references.

Identify the products and practices that contribute most to your environmental footprint

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The purpose of this lab is to learn more about how connected you are to the ecosystems and biosphere that you inhabit. You will learn how your everyday choices contribute to the human impacts on our environment you’ve been learning about. Most importantly, you will learn about benefits that you can achieve by joining the increasing number of people who are making choices that reduce their environmental impact.
Objectives
The objectives of this lab are to:
• Identify the products and practices that contribute most to your environmental footprint
• Identify solutions for each of these products and practices and estimate your savings of BOTH carbon emissions and money.
• Consider the multiple benefits (e.g., environmental, economic, health, etc) that humanity can achieve by reducing our individual and collective environmental impacts.
Procedure
1. Find out your ecological footprint:
a. Visit the Global Footprint Network web site. Use the footprint calculator to measure your ecological footprint and learn “how many earths” it takes to support your lifestyle. Be sure to choose the “detailed response” option for each question.
b. Answer each question in the quiz honestly and record your answers in the following categories:
• Your food (how much of it is animal products, processed, produced locally, and more)
• Your home (energy sources, how much trash you generate, how much new clothing and furniture you buy each month)
• Your mobility (how many miles you drive, the mileage of your vehicle(s), your use of public transport)
c. On the results page, click on “Explore scenarios” to learn how to reduce your footprint.
d. Use the questions that follow to reflect on your experience and feelings when taking this quiz.
2. Learn about specific products and practices that will help you reduce your environmental footprint and can even save you money.
a. Visit the EPA Household Emissions Calculator and complete its questions to learn more about your environmental impact and the benefits of solutions:
• Section 1: Estimate your current total household emissions (from home energy use, vehicle use, waste).
• Section 2: Explore actions you can take to reduce your greenhouse gas emissions, energy use, and waste disposal costs.
• Section 3: See how much you can save (in dollars and emissions) by taking the actions you chose in Section 2.
Lab Questions
1. What are the 3 everyday products and practices that contribute most to your environmental footprint?
2. What impacts might result if everyone in the world enjoyed the same lifestyle? For example, what might the impacts be on:
a. Earth’s climate?
b. The health of ecosystems and biodiversity?
c. Humanity’s natural resource base and thus economic security?
3. Identify solutions to each of the 3 components of your environmental footprint that you listed in question 2. What are the savings of BOTH carbon emissions and money you can achieve via each solution?
a. How much would this amount to if every household in America (roughly 100 million) did this?
b. If everybody did this, what might the impact on the health of our environment be? For example, how might these collective actions benefit our air and water quality? The health of the world’s forests?
c. How might these environmental improvements benefit human health and, in turn, our economy?
4. Does reducing the size of our footprint necessarily mean reducing our quality of life? Why or why not? Are there ways of enhancing quality of life while lowering impact?

examine how thresholds of land use changes such as deforestation and urban sprawl can impact communities, predator/prey relationships, species diversity, and quality of life in human communities.

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Overview
As you learned in Chapter 1, ecosystems are a complex and delicate balancing game. The addition or removal of any species affects many other species that might compete for or provide food. These interspecific interactions are further influenced by human impacts on the environment such as habitat fragmentation. Chapter 4 noted how disturbances associated with deforestation and urban sprawl alter environmental conditions in ways that can both shift competitive outcomes in ecosystems and threaten human well-being.

In this lab you will apply the scientific method to examine how thresholds of land use changes such as deforestation and urban sprawl can impact communities, predator/prey relationships, species diversity, and quality of life in human communities.

Scenario
The imaginary forest town of Pinchot, California is facing a land use planning battle. Conservationists and the local outdoor recreation industry want to protect at least 75% of Pinchot’s surrounding forest reserve to maintain the town’s natural heritage, including its unique biodiversity and valuable ecosystem services. Developers, however, want to expand the town’s neighborhoods and shopping malls and insist that protecting 25% of the reserve is all that is needed to sustain the forest’s biodiversity and economic value.

You have been appointed to a select team of scientists tasked with using the scientific method to evaluate the impacts of fragmentation on the forest reserve and community. Your objective is to determine the percent of intact forest that must be maintained to protect the reserve’s biodiversity and ecosystem services.

To achieve this objective, your team has developed a computer model based on decades of plant and animal population data collected by the Dept of Fish & Wildlife and local land trusts. Your modeling has also incorporated population data from the forest reserves of three nearby towns, which are 25%, 50% and 75% fragmented, respectively.

By comparing how fragmentation has impacted four ecologically important species within these four forest reserves, your team aims to answer the question of whether 25%, 50% or 75% fragmentation will be “sustainable” for Pinchot’s forest in terms of sustaining its biodiversity and ecosystem services. The science-based hypothesis that you are testing, using this computer model, is that neither 50% nor 75% fragmentation will achieve this goal.

About the Species
The four ecologically important species that your study focuses on include:

1. Spiny firegrass (SFG): a fictional Eurasian invasive annual grass. It is dangerous because as an annual that dries out in the summer, it increases the risk of dry-season wildfire in habitats that it invades. Elk do not eat SFG unless they are starving. SFG prefers disturbed sites such as roadsides and clearings, and does not do well in the shady environment of a closed forest. It flourishes in direct sunlight. Its effects on human communities include harm to pets and livestock – where it invades, it gets lodged in their noses and mouths, causing serious injury. Its spread also increases the risk of wildfire to homes and businesses.

2. Bluebunch wheatflower (BBWF): a fictional native perennial plant that is a habitat generalist, but is most competitive in moist forest interiors and least competitive in direct sunlight. In all habitats except direct sunlight, it is able to outcompete SFG and prevent the weed’s spread. As the preferred food of elk, it is particularly efficient at outcompeting the annual grass when wolf populations are large enough to moderate herbivore populations.

3. Elk: Elk eat BBWF, but do not find SFG palatable. Their preferred habitat is edges between the forest and clearings. At high numbers, elk eat BBWF, which otherwise suppresses the spread of SFG. When their population is high, elk pose the safety and economic threat of collisions with vehicles, which cause expensive and sometimes deadly damage.

4. Wolves: eat elk. Preferred habitat is intact forest. Wolves are highly sensitive to human disturbance and habitat fragmentation due to (a) getting hit by vehicles and (b) getting shot at by ranchers. They tend to avoid contact with humans, but occasionally prey upon livestock and pets.

The Importance of Forest Ecosystem Services to Your Findings

Your scientific team noted that several citizens of the town with a 50% fragmented forest reserve expressed concern about an increase in flood danger. They told the team that since 50% of the forest was removed and much of the land paved over for development, flood waters in the stream running through town have risen strikingly higher during major precipitation events.

Land trust officials of the town with a 75% fragmented forest reserve reported similar observations. They said that the stream running through town recently flooded the business district for the first time in history, causing millions of dollars in damage. In fact, the mayor told the team that the development the city had allowed seems to have exceeded a threshold of sustainability: it was not only unsustainable for maintaining their forest’s biodiversity, but also for maintaining the forest’s valuable ecosystem service of acting as a sponge that helps mitigate floods.

OBJECTIVES

Investigate the effects of habitat fragmentation associated with deforestation and urban sprawl on forest food webs and ecosystem processes.

Learn how to use the scientific method to address questions in environmental science and apply scientific findings to recommend management solutions.

Determine the percent of intact forest that must be maintained in order to protect the Pinchot Forest Reserve’s biodiversity and ecosystem services.

PROCEDURE

Literature Review
First, review course readings relevant to this lab:
• Chapter 1, which describes population and community dynamics, including competition between species, food webs and trophic cascades.
• Chapter 4, which describes environmental impacts of deforestation and urban sprawl, including biodiversity loss, fragmentation and increased runoff and flooding.
• Optional supplemental readings (feel free to use these to help answer the Lab Questions)
o Ecological Society of America’s ecosystem services fact sheet (and more in-depth report), which describes the valuable benefits that ecosystems provide to humanity.
o A brief overview article about the impacts of forest fragmentation on biodiversity
o A more detailed scientific review of effects of forest fragmentation on biodiversity

Computer Model Analysis
Click here to view a simulation of the effects of fragmentation on populations of your four key species. Follow the steps below to achieve your team’s objectives.

1. On the screen, you will see:
• Species addition buttons
• Level of fragmentation selection options
• A Graph showing population numbers

2. To explore species population dynamics, first select the 0% fragmented forest, which reflects the current undisturbed state of Pinchot’s forest. Complete the following steps:

a) Simulation Step 1: Add Spiny firegrass (SFG) to the forest ecosystem. In the graph on the screen, a vertical bar graph appears showing the current population of SFG. Record that number in your Excel data table for SFG alone at 0% fragmentation.

b) Step 2: Add Bluebunch wheatflower (BBWF) to the ecosystem. To the right of SFG, a second bar graph appears with a “BBWF” label beneath it, showing its current population. Record both the population number of BBWF and the new population of SFG (as influenced by the addition of BBWF) in your data table.

c) Step 3: Add elk to the ecosystem. Record the population number of elk and the new population sizes of SFG and BBWG (as influenced by the addition of elk) in your data table.

d) Step 4: Add wolves to the ecosystem. Record the population number of wolves and the new population sizes of SFG, BBWG and elk (as influenced by the addition of wolves) in your data table.

3. Adjust the fragmentation level to 25%, 50% and finally 75% and repeat Steps a-d at each level. At each fragmentation level, use your Excel data table to record species population numbers at each step of species addition.

4. When you have completed the data table, answer the study questions below.

LAB QUESTIONS

In the lab questions below, report your answers in the format of a scientific report: introduction, methods, results, discussion, conclusions and management recommendations. Click here for a tip sheet about writing scientific reports.

Introduction
1. What is the question that this study aimed to answer? State the hypothesis that you tested.

Methods
2. Briefly describe the methods of data collection and analysis you used to test your hypothesis. What scientific procedure did you follow to answer your question and test your hypothesis?

Results
3. Look at your results table. What were impacts of fragmentation on each species’ population numbers when all four were present? Do you accept or reject your hypothesis? Support your answer with reference to the specific results upon which you are basing your finding.

4. Did you observe any thresholds of fragmentation beyond which a species’ population number rapidly declined (here, an example of a threshold would be if one or more species’ population numbers remained relatively constant at 0% and 25% fragmentation, but then suddenly fell dramatically at 50% or 75% fragmentation)? Did the effects of any such threshold on one species cascade through the community to impact other species? Explain, using specific examples from your data.

5. What were the impacts of competition on each species? How did the addition of BBWF, elk and wolves affect the populations of the other species?

Discussion
6. Which species appear to benefit from increasing fragmentation? Which species are negatively impacted? Based on your knowledge of environmental science, what could explain these observations? Support your answer with specific results from your data and ideas from your readings.

7. How do your findings relate to relevant theories in environmental science? Specifically:
a. Do your results indicate that any of the species are keystone species? Do they support the theory of bottom-up or top-down control of population dynamics in ecosystems? Explain.
b. How do deforestation and urban sprawl affect the greater food web? Do your results support idea that trophic cascades occur in nature? Explain.

8. According to the scenario, your results and the readings, how might the environmental impacts of deforestation and sprawl affect the human community of Pinchot?

Conclusions and Management Recommendations
9. What do you recommend to Pinchot as a “sustainable” level of fragmentation that conserves the forest’s biodiversity and ecosystem services while still allowing for some development? Following up on your answer to question 8, how might conserving Pinchot’s forest reserve protect the town from economic, health and safety threats posed by fragmentation?

Remember – this is a scientific report, so no matter what your opinion of deforestation is, make sure your results and the readings support your conclusions.

In the 1980s a popular environmental slogan was “Reduce, Reuse and Recycle” and now “Go Green,” is a popular message. Consider the Reusable Grocery Bags sold in markets everywhere. What are the pros and cons that you see in this latest trend? Give examples of the potential environmental impact.

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In the 1980s a popular environmental slogan was “Reduce, Reuse and Recycle” and now “Go Green,” is a popular message. Consider the Reusable Grocery Bags sold in markets everywhere. What are the pros and cons that you see in this latest trend? Give examples of the potential environmental impact.
Your initial post should be at least 150 words in length. Support your claims with at least two references in addition to your text in support of your position. Cite your sources in APA style.

What is the effectiveness of such global treaties as The Kyoto Agreement to alleviate global environmental issues (global warming, acid rain, etc.). Should the United States take a more active role in these agreements?

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What is the effectiveness of such global treaties as The Kyoto Agreement to alleviate global environmental issues (global warming, acid rain, etc.). Should the United States take a more active role in these agreements?

The long-term average of a region’s temperature and precipitation is that area’s.

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The long-term average of a region’s temperature and precipitation is that area’s
A) climate.
B) ecotone.
C) ecotype.
D) weather.
E) ecology.

Which of the following describes a theory?

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Which of the following describes a theory?
A) an idea that is unproven
B) a hypothesis that can be tested through experiments
C) a scientific experiment
D) a model of how a system works
E) a worldview

Which of the following is true of animal wastes produced from industrial- style factory farming?

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Which of the following is true of animal wastes produced from industrial- style factory farming?
A) they are more valued by farm operator than chemical fertilizers.
B) they are adequately treated in wastewater treatment plants.
C) they are worthless.
D) they contribute greatly to pollution in rivers when allowed to runoff from the farm site.
E) most are returned to nearby soils as fertilizer.

Differences in yields per acre in different regions of the world are mostly a consequence of differences in:

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Differences in yields per acre in different regions of the world are mostly a consequence of differences in:
A) soils, availability of water, and sunlight.
B) use of high yield varieties.
C) pest losses.
D) temperature.
E) labor.

Which of the following is a food safety related issue concerning genetically modified organisms?

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Which of the following is a food safety related issue concerning genetically modified organisms?
A) Bt is a known toxin.
B) Roundup is a weed killer.
C) some people may be allergic to foreign proteins introduced into foods.
D) toxins carried by pollen from transgenic crops may kill beneficial in- sects.
E) golden rice is still undergoing testing.

Suppose you have a soil which is a mixture of sand, silt, clay, humus, and some stones and rock. As this soil is exposed to erosion, what parts are removed most readily?

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Suppose you have a soil which is a mixture of sand, silt, clay, humus, and
some stones and rock. As this soil is exposed to erosion, what parts are removed most readily?
A) humus and clay.
B) humus and sand.
C) sand and silt.
D) silt and clay.
E) clay and sand.